Fluid Dynamics Links.
This is the research I pulled for simulating water effects.
They are in chronological order within two groups.
I have really investigated the dynamic methods so comment more
there.
If anyone has worked with any of these techniques or knows of
others I have missed, I would love to compare implementation notes.
Non-Dynamic Methods
Peachey, Darwyn, "Modeling Waves and Surf", SIGGRAPH 1986, pp. 65-74
This paper covers wave approaching and breaking on a sloping beach.
Uses a phase function to produce waves and refractions and a particle
system for spray.
Fournier, Alain, "A Simple Model of Ocean Waves", SIGGRAPH 1986, pp. 75-84
Models particles of water as circular and eliptical orbits. Surface then
rendered as a parameteric surface.
Goss, Michael, "A Real Time Particle System Display of Ship Wakes," IEEE
Computer Graphics and Applications, May, 1990, pp. 30-35
You get the idea.
Dynamic Models - Use some form of computation fluid dynamics approach.
I believe these produce the most realistic results.
Miller, Gavin, "Globular Dynamics, A Connected Particle System for Animating
Viscous Fluids," Computers and Graphics, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989, pp. 305-309
Very nice looking fountain type stuff. Sort of flowing metaballs.
Kass, Michael, and Gavin Miller, "Rapid, Stable Fluid Dynamics for
Computer Graphics," SIGGRAPH, 1990, pp. 49-55
This methods simplifies the full navier-stokes fluid flow equations for
shallow water. It uses a height map to represent the water surface.
I have implemented both the 2D and 3D versions of this system and it
is very suitable for realtime performance on the scale I need. It looks
very realistic and provides most of the features I am looking for like;
standing waves, eddies, holes, etc. Major drawback is that since it is
a heightmap, the water cannot crash over in a full wave. I have been
playing with firing particles whenever a cell pressure and vertical velocity
are over a threshold.
Chen, Jim, and Niels Lobo, "Toward Interactive-Rate Simulation of Fluids with
Moving Obstacles Using Navier-Stokes Equations," Graphical Modeling and Image
Processing, Vol 57, No. 2, March 1995, pp. 107-116
Extends Kass and Miller's technique to support obstacles in the flow as well as
ship wakes, etc..
The University of Central Florida has been working on extending the Kass and Miller
model also for use in military simulation.
Their website is www.vsl.ist.ucf.edu/~jinxiong
Nick Foster has the most interesting papers on his web site at
www.cis.upenn.edu/~fostern
Foster,Nick, and Dimitri Metaxas, "Realistic Animation of Liquids,"
Proceedings GI '96, pp. 204-212
Foster,Nick, and Dimitri Metaxas, "Controlling Fluid Animation,"
Proceedings CGI '97, pp. 178-188
These simulate the full 3D navier-stokes equations. This allows
for full wave crashing, splashing, etc. The area is completely
voxelized and the water flows all over. Problem is, so far I have
been unable to get this fast enough for a large enough area to be
feasible for gaming. However, I believe this is the future.